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  著名的Vatican City梵蒂岡城是羅馬教廷所在地,是由教皇統治的國家,位于意大利羅馬城內,面積只有109英畝(約180平方公里),可謂是世界上最小的獨立國家。Vatican City的建筑氣勢宏偉、內部裝飾精美,堪稱藝術之杰作……

  Vatican City is an independent state under the absolute authority of the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church. It is an enclave with Rome, Italy, with an area of 44 hectares . The smallest independent country in the world, Vatican City was established in 1929 under terms of the Lateran Treaty, concluded by the Italian government and the papacy after many years of controversy. This treaty was superseded in 1984 by a new concordat, which, like its predecessor, recognized the full sovereignty of the Holy See within the state of Vatican City.

  enclave:“飛地”,這是個很專業的名詞:指在某一國境內,但卻隸屬于另一國的地區。如Vatican在意大利境內,但卻是一個獨立的國家。前綴en-有“包圍,置于……中”等含意,例如enclosure,encage,encompass等。

  conclude:“結束、中止”的意思。Vatican City于1929開始修建,許多年后由意大利政府和羅馬教廷(papacy)最后完成,其中經過了許多爭論(controversy)。

  concordat:“協議”、“合同”的意思,這里指“宗教協定”,是羅馬教皇與各國政府之間的協定,即,承認教皇在Vatican City的統治。

  Vatican City is situated on Vatican Hill in northwestern Rome, just west of the Tiber River. It is surrounded by medieval and Renaissance walls and has six gates. Many of the most renowned artists and architects of the Italian Renaissance were commissioned by Popes to work on the Vatican's buildings. The most imposing and important edifice is Saint Peter's Basilica. Built for the most part between the 15th and 17th centuries, and designed by artists, including Bramante, Michelangelo, and Bernini, it is the world center of Roman Catholic worship. In front of the basilica is the great Piazza San Pietro .

  imposing:壯觀的、氣勢宏偉的、使人難忘的。

  edifice:“建筑物”、“大廈”,規模宏大、建筑精美的building。Vatican City最宏偉的建筑是Saint Peter's Basilica(圣彼得大教堂),它是世界上最大的基督教教堂,形狀象一個十字架。

  Bramante:布拉曼特,意大利建筑師、畫家,文藝復興盛期建筑風格的代表。

  Michelangelo:米開朗琪羅,意大利著名的畫家。

  Bernini:貝爾尼尼,意大利建筑家、雕刻家和畫家,是巴洛克藝術風格的代表人物。

  Piazza San Pietro:圣彼得廣場,因位于圣彼得教堂前方而得名。

  The other major edifice is the Palace of the Vatican, also known as the Papal Palace. It is a complex of buildings that contains more than 1000 rooms and houses the papal apartments, the government offices of the Roman Catholic church, several chapels and museums, and a library. The most famous portions of the palace are the Sistine Chapel, with its great ceiling frescoes painted by Michelangelo ; and Raphael's Rooms, papal apartments with frescoes painted by the Italian artist Raphael.

  chapel:“小教堂”、“附屬教堂”的意思。

  fresco:濕壁畫,濕壁畫技法。“干壁畫”是fresco secco。

  梵蒂岡雖小,博物館、美術館等藝術殿堂卻很多,有豐富的珍品收藏。整個國家有著完整的政治管理體系和政府機構,還有自己的公共服務設施。當然,作為一個教皇國,Vatican City處處帶有宗教的印記……

  The Vatican's museums are outstanding and include the Gregorian Museum of Egyptian Art; the Gregorian Museum of Etruscan Art; the Pio Clementno Museum, with a superlative collection of antiquities; the Chiaramonti Museum; and the Vatican Pinacotheca, with representative works by Italian masters. The Vatican Library has a priceless collection of ancient manuscripts and more than 1 million bound volumes. Also within the Vatican's walls are the Government Palace and the Vatican Gardens.

  Gregorian museum:“格利高里博物館”,“Gregory”是教皇的名字。Vatican的博物館都很突出,其中包括格利高里埃及藝術博物館、格利高里伊特魯里亞藝術博物館等。

  superlative:“最高的”、“最好的”等意思。

  antiquity:“古跡”、“古物”的意思。在Vatican的博物館里,收藏有最好的古物。

  Vatican Pinacotheca:“梵蒂岡美術館”,Pinacotheca就是“畫廊、美術館”的意思。

  Vatican City is governed by the Pope, who has absolute executive, legislative, and judicial powers. The executive powers are delegated to a governor, who is responsible directly to the Pope. In the exercise of his legislative powers, the Pope is advised and assisted by the Sacred College of Cardinals and by the various Sacred Congregations. The judicial powers are exercised by tribunals; appeals from their decisions are heard by the sacred Roman Rota and by the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature.

  Pope:“教皇、主教”。Vatican City由教皇統治,完全掌握著行政權、立法權、和司法權。

  delegate:“委派”、“授權”的意思。政府由教皇授權行使行政權,并直接對教皇負責。

  sacred College of Cardinals:“紅衣主教神學院”。教皇在行使立法權時,由紅衣主教神學院和Sacred Congregations(圣會)協助并提出建議。

  The Secretariat of State represents the Holy See in diplomatic relations with foreign powers. Swiss Guards maintain internal security and protection of the Pope; the Piazza San Pietro is subject to the authority of the Italian police. Castel Gandolfo, the papal summer palace outside Rome, as well as other buildings located in Rome but outside of Vatican City are endowed with extraterritoriality.

  Secretariat of State:“秘書長”。

  Holy See:“圣座”的意思,這里指代教皇。教廷的秘書長可以代表教皇進行外交活動。

  Castel Gandolfo:教皇的夏季宮殿。

  endow:“資助”、“捐贈”和“給予”的意思。

  extraterritoriality:“非管轄區、治外法權”。

  Vatican City has its own currency and postal system. It also has a railroad station and radio station, and manages its own telephone and telegraph services. Annual expenditures in the late 1980s were $121.9 million. A daily newspaper and an official monthly journal are published, as are books and pamphlets in numerous languages.

  annual:“每年的,每年一次的”,指植物時是“一年生植物”。Vatican City不但有自己的貨幣和郵政體系,還有一個火車站和電臺,經營著自己的電話和電報服務機構。80年代后期年均在這些項目上的花費有1.2億多美元。

  pamphlet:“小冊子”、“時事活頁文選”等。它的近義詞是brochure“手冊、小冊子”,一般印刷精美,帶插圖;而pamphlet一般印刷簡單,而且比較薄。


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