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霍爾亨薩爾茨堡最大的中世紀城堡

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  走進薩爾茨堡,無處不見莫扎特的蹤跡。城市偎倚在白雪皚皚的阿爾卑斯山峰之間。河右岸南山坡的霍爾亨薩爾茨堡,歷經900年風雨,仍巍峨挺立,它是中歐地區保存最完好、規模最大的一座中世紀城堡。

  The medieval princes' apartments and the Fortress Museum are of particular interest. Since 1892 the fortress can easily be reached by funicular railway departing from the Festungsgasse. Hohensalzburg Fortress, built in 1077 by Archbishop Gebhard, considerably enlarged by Archbishop Leonhard von Keutschach .

  The Festung or Hohensalzburg Fortress, the chief landmark of Mozart's city, is the largest, fully-preserved fortress in central Europe. The more than 900-year-old citadel dates back to the investiture controversy between emperor and pope over the right to appoint the bishop. As a faithful servant of the pope, Archbishop Gerhard von Salzburg had the strongholds of Hohensalzburg, Hohenwerfen and Friesach built on his sovereign territory in 1077. Expansion of Gebhart's fortifications were temporarily completed under Konrad I .

  During the 15th and 16th centuries, during the turmoil of the so-called Hungarian War and the Peasants' War in which the province of Salzburg was involved, the archbishops took refuge behind the battlements of the fortress. It was during this period that the main building was enlarged and the arsenal and the granary erected.

  Archbishop Leonhard von Keutschach enlarged the fortress and its exterior has remained substantially unaltered since then. The fortress' interior was richly decorated: intricate Gothic wood-carvings and ornamental and coats of arms with the beetroot are commemorative of Leonhard von Keutschach. The fortress' symbol, the lion, holds the beetroot in its paws. One of the last extensive modifications was the addition of the great Kuenberg bastion.

  During its long history the Hohensalzburg Fortress has always remained unconquered by enemy troops. Having served as a fortification and temporary residence of the prince archbishops for many years, the fortress also served as military barracks and a prison. Prince Archbishop Wolf Dietrich was held captive in the fortress for five years by his nephew and successor, Markus Sittikus, up to his death in 1617.

  Today the fortress is open to the public all year round and artists from around the world meet here for courses at the International Summer Academy.

  薩爾茨堡(Salzburg)是奧地利西北部薩爾茨堡州首府,瀕臨多瑙河支流薩爾察赫河,是奧地利北部交通、工業及旅游中心。這里是大作曲家莫扎特的出生地,素有“音樂藝術中心”之稱。

  薩爾茨堡1077年設市,公元8世紀-18世紀為天主教大主教駐地和活動中心。1802年薩爾茨堡脫離宗教統治,1809年,根據《舍恩布龍條約》歸巴伐利亞,維也納會議(1814—1815年)決定歸還給奧地利。這里的建筑藝術堪與意大利的威尼斯和佛羅倫薩相媲美,有“北方羅馬”之稱。

  城市分布在薩爾察赫河兩岸,偎倚在白雪皚皚的阿爾卑斯山峰之間。城市被蒼郁的陡山圍繞,充滿魅力。河右岸南山坡的霍爾亨薩爾茨堡(11世紀),歷經900年風雨,仍巍峨挺立,是中歐地區保存最完好、規模最大的一座中世紀城堡。


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