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盧浮宮旅游英語

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  法國巴黎是世界文明的藝術之都,它不僅以秀麗的風景吸引著來自世界各地的人,更以其光彩奪目的藝術明珠另人心往神迷。這顆明珠就是Louvre,盧浮宮-舉世矚目的藝術寶庫……
 
  Louvre, national art museum of France and the palace in which it is housed, is located in Paris, on the Right Bank of the Seine River. The structure, until 1682 a residence of the kings of France, is one of the largest palaces in the world. It occupies the site of a 13th-century fortress. The building of the Louvre was begun in 1546 in the reign of Francis I, according to the plans of the French architect Pierre Lescot. Additions were made to the structure during the reigns of almost every subsequent French monarch.
 
  fortress:“堡壘”、“陣地”等意思。盧浮宮建造于13世紀的一個堡壘的舊址之上。
 
  reign:“統治時期”。盧浮宮是于1546年弗郎西斯一世在位時開始修建的。
 
  subsequent:“隨后的”、“后來的”等意思。
 
  monarch:“君主”、“帝王”。據法國建筑師Pierre Lescot的修建計劃所載,Francis I以后的每一位法國君主都對盧浮宮進行了增建。
 
  Under Henry IV, in the early 17th century, the Grand Galerrie, now the main picture gallery, which borders the Seine, was completed. Under Napoleon III a wing on the north side was finished. By the mid-19th century the vast complex was completed; covering more than 48 acres, it is a masterpiece of architectural design and sculptural adornment.
 
  Grand Galerrie:盧浮宮著名的大畫廊。
 
  wing:本義是“翅膀”,這里指“建筑物的側翼”。
 
  complex:“錯綜的”、“復雜的”等意思。這里是名詞用法,表示“結構復雜的建筑物”。
 
  adornment:“裝飾”、“裝飾物”的意思。盧浮宮結構復雜,占地面積廣,經過幾個世紀才修建完畢。因而,它既是建筑設計領域的杰出作品,又是雕刻裝飾領域的大手筆。
 
  The nucleus of the Louvre collections is the group of Italian Renaissance paintings among them several by Leonardo da Vinci owned by Francis I, a collector and patron of note. The holdings were significantly enriched by acquisitions made for the monarchy by Cardinal Richelieu and by Cardinal Mazarin, who was instrumental in purchasing works that had belonged to Charles I of England.
 
  nucleus:nucleus有很多意思,我們熟知的是表示“原子核”、“細胞核”等。本文里,nucleus則是“核心”、“中心”的意思。Italian Renaissance(意大利文藝復興)時的繪畫是整個盧浮宮藏品的核心部分。
 
  patron of note:patron是“贊助人”的意思,note在這里表示“鈔票”。Patron of note就是“資金贊助者”了。
 
  acquisition:是“獲得物”的意思。許多本來供奉君王的藝術品大大豐富了盧浮宮的收藏。
 
  instrumental:instrument除了表示“樂器外”,還表示“傀儡”、“受利用的工具”的意思。本文的instrumental就是“有幫助”、“有作用”的意思。
 
  Napoleon deposited in the Louvre the paintings and works of art seized during his European conquests; after his downfall, however, many of these works were restored to their original owners. Since that time increasing numbers of gifts, purchases, and finds brought back from archaeological expeditions have permanently enriched the museum. Among its greatest treasures are two of the most famous sculptures of the ancient world, the Victory of Samothrace and the Venus de Milo, and Leonardo's famous portrait, Mona Lisa. The Louvre also holds works by the other Italian masters Raphael and Titian and paintings by the northern artists Peter Paul Rubens and Rembrandt. Protection of all the Louvre's priceless masterpieces during the two world wars was effected by their removal to secret depositories outside Paris.
 
  deposit:這個詞有很豐富的含意:“堆積、存放、押金、沉淀物”等,這里是指“存放”的意思。拿破侖把他在歐洲戰場上掠奪來的藝術品都存放在了盧浮宮。
 
  sculpture:雕刻、雕塑。盧浮宮的雕塑典藏中,最珍貴的當數“勝利女神”和“米洛斯的維納斯”,還有舉世聞名的畫像《蒙娜麗莎》。盧浮宮還收藏了其他意大利藝術大師的作品,包括拉斐爾和提香、以及一些北方藝術家的作品。
 
  盧浮宮藏品豐富,件件稱得上是藝術珍寶,為歷代帝王以及宮廷藝術家等所重視。這些藏品分門別類,由專門的部門管理。盧浮宮內還有許多藏品目錄和小冊子,向游人作介紹。隨著藏品的增多,其“領地”也不斷擴張……
 
  The collections of the museum are administered by seven curatorial departments. The Department of Egyptian Antiquities was formed in 1826 to study and display the objects brought back to France during Napoleon's campaign in Egypt. The Department of Oriental Antiquities is famed for its collections of Mesopotamian and Islamic art. Other departments include Greek, Roman, and Etruscan antiquities; Objets d'art ; and Drawings and Prints.
 
  administer:在這里是“掌管”、“料理”、“管理”的意思。
 
  curatorial:curatorial的原形是curator,意思是“博物館、展覽館的館主”。
 
  antiquity:“古人”、“古物”的意思。
 
  The Department of Paintings, considered by many scholars the most important in the world, includes several thousand works of the various European schools. Its enormous collection of French paintings ranges from the Middle Ages to the early 19th century. Since 1986, however, works of the French impressionists and postimpressionists, many dating from 1848 to 1914 and formerly housed in the Music du Jeu Paume adjacent to the Louvre, have been included in the collection of the Music d'Orsay on the left bank of the Seine River.
 
  impressionist:我們都知道impression有“印象”的意思,impressionnist由此引申而來,表示“印象派畫家或作家”。
 
  The museum publishes catalogs and brochures. In addition, it publishes the Revue de Louvre, which contains articles on new acquisitions and provides information on museum projects and on other French museums.
 
  brochure:“小冊子”、“印成小冊子的論文”。盧浮宮本身是一個博物館,里面有藏品目錄以及介紹性的小冊子,包括新近藝術品簡介、museum projects(博物館建設計劃)和其它博物館的信息
 
  In 1993 the Richelieu Wing was opened by President Mitterrand of France. The north wing of the Louvre Palace, formerly occupied by the Ministry of Finance, was vacated and transformed into exhibition areas. This ended the second phase of a project in progress since 1981 that included the addition of the glass pyramid entrance designed by American architect I.M. Pei, an auditorium, galleries for temporary exhibitions, displays on the history of the Louvre, moats of the medieval Louvre, restaurants, shops, and parking facilities.
 
  vacate:“空出”、“撤離”的意思。盧浮宮的北側翼原本是由財政部使用的,后來騰出來變成了展覽區。
 
  phase:“階段”、“時期”的意思。

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