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“南岳衡山”中英雙語導游詞,衡山英語導游詞

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  Mt. Hengshan

  (南岳衡山)

  Ladies and Gentlemen,dear friends,

  Good morning. Welcome to Mt. Hengshan, lying in the central south of Hunan Province; Mt. Hengshan is one of the five sacred mountains of China. It has been placed on the Official List of the First Key Chinese Scenic Areas and has also been designated a First 4A Chinese Sightseeing Destination. Finally, it is the only place in Hunan to be ranked among China's Pilot Civilized Scenic Areas-the only representative from Hunan in this regard. Picturesque in scenery, Mt. Hengshan abounds with cultural sites and tops the other four sacred mountains in scenic beauty, thereby earning itself a title of Chinese Mountain of Longevity.

  Mt. Hengshan leads the rest of sacred mountains in fame. Its outstanding qualities are attributable to its enchanting scenes, varied species, and imposing appearance.

  Billed as the leader of the five sacred mountains, Mt. Hengshan boasts charming and beautiful natural scenery. While exploring Mt. Hengshan, you will see wooded hills, vying with one another for beauty, hovering clouds and bubbling streams. No wonder it is popularly said of this mountain that “At every turn, a tourist comes in view of a different picture, experiencing a kaleidoscope of sights”. Mt. Hengshan has more beautiful views than the eye can take in. The most famous is the “Four Grand Sights of Mt. Hengshan”, consisting of the Hall of Scriptures, known for its beauty, the Fangguang Temple, known for its depth, Zhurong Peak, known for its height, and Water Beads Cavern, known for its quaintness.

  Mt. Hengshan has a subtropical monsoon climate with high humidity. With a long frost-free season, a short freezing season and heavy precipitation, it has cool summers and cold winters. Usually foggy and windy, it features periodic changes in temperature. A green landscape of wooded hills is attributable to its ideal natural condition. Four-fifths of Mt. Hengshan is covered with forests and some 1,700 tree species can be found growing on its slopes. The mountain covers an area of 20,000 hectares 3,800 hectares of which are secondary virgin forests. It is a heavenly sanctuary for rare wild animals such as golden pheasants, bamboo partridges, and flat-breast turtles with big heads and pangolins.

  Towering over the surrounding plains, Mt. Hengshan soars into the air straight from the South Hunan Basin, thereby forming a number of spectacular sights. Its scenery features four seas: a sea of flowers in spring, clouds in summer, sunrise in autumn and snow in winter. The clouds over Mt. Hengshan are especially worth mentioning. Like Mt. Huangshan’s pines, the clouds over Mt. Hengshan have been viewed and talked about with great relish since ancient times. The mountain’s enchanting clouds have the following characteristics. Firstly, they vary in shape from season to season: during spring the clouds are like quilts; during summer they resemble feathers, during the autumn they resemble waterfalls, and during the winter they are as dark as ink. Secondly, the gathering clouds sometimes spring up or hang how like mushrooms after the rain, taking on a peculiar look. Thirdly, the wind mixes with the scudding clouds, rising from mountains in early morning or at dusk, blowing through the pine forests over tourists’ faces. A deep rumbling sound of pine trees sounds frightening in the distance. Coming nearer, it gets fainter and fainter, removing tourists’ fears. No wonder ancient Chinese eulogized them, saying “a sea of clouds reverberates in our hearts”.

  Mt. Hengshan not only has beautiful scenic sights but also abounds with cultural sites. It is the treasure house of Chinese culture, renowned as the “Civilized Museum of Great Learning”. Throughout all Chinese dynasties, emperor, princes, and celebrities paid their tributes to the mountain; men of letters, poets, scholars paid their visits to it, leaving behind them steles, temples, and poems at Mt. Hengshan; they made great contributions to turning it into the priceless treasure house of Chinese culture and making it a famed mountain of Human culture.

  In line with famous saying, “Monks take up their abode in most of famed mountains”, Mt. Hengshan is not only a mountain of scenic beauty, but also a sacred religious mountain. Unlike other famous religious mountains, it embraces both Buddhism and Taoism which exist side-by-side and complement each other here.

  The Ancient Town of Nanyue

  A little further from the Archway of Mount Hengshan and we arrive at the ancient town of Nanyue. No one knows for sure when the town came into existence. We do know that it was a boom town as early as the Tang Dynasty. The millennia-old flagstone road you are traveling on is well trodden, looking polished and glossy. Leather shoes clank on it as if a robed monk beats his wooden block chanting scriptures, striking a deep chord in pilgrims' hearts.

  The streets in the town are all paved with stone slabs. They are lined with two-storied protruding houses of equal size. Whitewashed and glazed in red, the houses have upturned eaves, roofs carved with dragons and painted with phoenixes. The houses are kept as they were, lending a primitive simplicity to the town. A joss stick bought in a store or a cup of tea sipped in a roadhouse can provide tourists with either a new experience, such as imbibing a bit of profound Buddhism, or give them an aftertaste of traditional Chinese culture. More interestingly, there is an endless arcade on either side of a street. Therefore, you may roam along street without carrying an umbrella in rainy days.

  Though small in size, Nanyue ancient town is self-sufficient with restaurants, hotels, incense and general stores, temples and studies smelling of ink. It is worth mentioning the restaurants here, offering local specialties such delicious wild mushrooms, the unique tasting Mt. Hengshan bean curd, and nutritious mountain bamboo shoots. The local specialties are mouth watering in taste. To make your trip here perfect, you should have a taste of the special dishes in Mt. Hengshan, which are as famous as Xi'an bread filled with lamb, Tianjin fried dough sticks, and Chongqing chafing dishes.

  Walking past the flagstone streets of long duration, living quarters with a long history, and soul-purifying temples and incense altars, aren't you enlightened? After a visit here, don't you have a special feeling for Nanyue? Much more thought for life? Therein lies the beauty of this ancient town.

  The Grand Temple of Nanyue

  Beyond the North Street, the landscape opens up to a wide vista. In sight is a magnificent ancient building complex. Standing before us is the largest ancient palace complex in Southern China. The Grand Temple is an ancient building complex of pagan, Buddhist, and Taoist temples and residential palaces. It is the largest religious building complex in Southern China and the country's five sacred mountains. The present temple complex, which is nine sections deep, has four courtyards, eight Buddhist temples, and eight Taoist temples. It covers an area of 98,500 square meters, and is 375 meters deep, 139 meters wide in the outer section, and 174 meters wide in the inner section. It is partitioned off in the Confucian style of architecture: eight Taoist temples on the eastern side and eight Buddhist temples on the westem side. This is the only temple in the world, embracing Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism in one place of worship.

  The Temple to Martyrs

  Located at the foot of the Fragrant Incense Peak, the Nanyue Temple to Martyrs is billed as one of the earliest and largest historical sites in China commemorating the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression. It is the only big mausoleum left behind on the mainland by the Guomindang Nationalist Government honoring revolutionary fighters during this conflict. Planning for the mausoleum's construction began in 1938 and it was completed in 1943. Modeled on Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum in Nanjing, it was built on a hillside, facing north with a symmetrical layout. It has five component parts: the archway, the monument, the memorial hall, the stone tablet of tributes and the tomb site. Some of commanders and soldiers of the Ninth and sixth Theaters of Operation are buried here. The site is now placed on the official list of Chinese National Heritage Sites.

  The Temple to Martyrs' front gate is a marble archway of three arches and a single tier of eaves. A horizontal beam hangs over the archway, inscribed with the title, “The Nanyue Temple to Martyrs”. These glistening words were handwritten by Xue Yue, the then governor of Hunan Provincial Government of the Nationalist Party and commander in chief of the Ninth Theater of Operations.

  Upon entering the archway, you find yourselves in a flat open square. Some of the tourists may ask out of curiosity why Mt. Hengshan was chosen for burying martyrs out of such a big country as China. We need to give some background information concerning the burial site. Soon after the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression broke out, northern China, eastern China and southern China mostly fell into enemy 's hands. As a result, the central government of the Nation-alist Party moved to Chongqing and Mt. Hengshan became one of the fighting fronts against the Japanese imperialist forces. In November, 1938, Jiang Kaishek, called a top-level military conference in Mt. Hengshan. Zhou Enlai and Ye Jianying attended the conference as representatives of the Chinese Communist Party. After hearing the war reports given by military commanders of various theaters of operations, Jiang Kai shek, realizing so many officers and soldiers had died and were unburied in battlefields, ordered their immediate burial. After a discussion, it was agreed at the conference that the Temple to Martyrs and the Cemetery of Martyrs should be built in Nanyue. The central government contributed the largest sum of money for this project, with other funds coming from the Ninth and Sixth Theaters of Operations and contributions made by people from all walks of life. The remains of dead officers and soldiers, therefore, were buried and their bodies were laid to rest here. That is how the Temple to martyrs originated.

  At the center of the square stands an odd-looking statue. It is the Monument of Lugou Bridge Incident of July 7, 1937. It is composed of five upside-down stone shells . They stand for the five Chinese nationalities: the Hans, the Mans, the Mongolians, the Huis and the Tibetans. Inscribed on three sides of the marble statue , were two bold words ‘July 7’, symbolic of Lugou Bridge Incident which brought in united resistance against Japanese aggression. The shells in an upside-down position, pointing to the blue sky and the sun, symbolize Chinese resistance against Japanese aggression.

  After a visit to the Monument in Commemoration of Lugou Bridge Incident, you are taken to the Memorial Hall, the third section of the Temple to Martyrs. The present horizontal board was inscribed with bold words handwr-itten by Qu Wu, ex-chairman of the Revolutionary Committee of the Chinese Nationalist Party. In the center of the memorial hall stands a marble stele, 6 meters high, inscribed with “the History of the Memorial Hall in the Nanyue Temple to Martyrs”, written by General Xue Yue, giving an account of the historical background and construction of the hall. Exhibition displays are on each side of the hall devoted to photographs, paintings, and historical literature regarding Nanyue and the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression.

  The back door of the hall leads to two rows of stone steps upward on the moun-tainside. Its 276 steps represent the 276 officers and soldiers who died in the War Resisting Japanese Aggression. A patch of wooded land between two rows of steps was set aside for displaying touching words, “Eternal Glory to National Martyrs”, “Nation, the Rights of People, the Livelihood of People”. There are nine flights of steps.

  Walking up the steps, we arnve at the tomb site, the last but ceftainly not the least important building in the Temple to the Martyrs. Over the front door hangs a big horizontal board inscribed with bold words, “Temple to Martyrs”, handwritten by Jiang Kaishek. Please have a close examination of the words on the board. Have you found anything special about the words?

  Walking out of the tomb site, you come in view of mounds on either side of the tomb site. This is a cemetery for the martyrs who died in the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression. Covering an area of over 13 hectares, the cemetery has seven group tombs burying the dead of the 60th division of 37th Army and 19th division of 70th Army, as well as ten personal tombs burying generals such as Hu Heyun and Zheng Zuomin. The tombs lie hidden from sight under pine and cypress trees, some stately, others standing tall and erect, still others arranged in lines and the rest looking up into the sky. Veiled in respectful silence for the dead, the cemetery looks solemn and grave.

  The Zhurong Peak

  The Zhurong Peak is the highest peak of the seventy two peaks in Mt. Hengshan, 1,290 meters above sea level. The lofty Zhurong Peak is in marked contrast to the low-lying South Hunan Basin and seems to reach into the clouds. The peak commands a bird's eye view of South Hunan. The Zhurong Temple stands atop the Zhurong peak. Built on a giant rock, the temple is broken down into two component sections. The temple is roofed with tin-plated tiles, each 0. 6 meter long, 0. 3 meter wide and 15 kilograms in weight. Dozens of the tiles were cast in the Song Dynasty Imperial Foundry. The tiles are not rusty and look shiny after a thousand years of use. You may ask out of curiosity why were tin-plated tiles used for roofing? The building architecture shows great originality and distinctive features of its own. Look around and you find only a few low trees growing sparsely at the peak. Category 4 and 5 storms blowing over the peak all year round are to blame for this. If the temple had not been roofed with tin-plated tiles, its roof would have been blown away by these typhoon force winds.

  Walking out of a small stone door on the right side of the temple, one finds a stone terrace with such inscriptions as “A Skyline View of the World” and “Beating Anyone in Height”. This is the Moon-viewing Terrace, the highest point in Mt. Hengshan. Looking over railings at the hanging moon, one may feel like standing high above clouds, getting closer to the moon, having entered the heavenly gate, being instantly relaxed and happy.

  各位女士、各位先生,各位朋友,你們好!歡迎大家來到南岳衡山做客!衡山位于湖南省中南部,是我國著名的五岳之一,首批國家重點風景名勝區、首批國家4A級旅游區和湖南省唯一的“全國文明風景旅游區示范點”。衡山風光秀美,人文薈萃,素有“五岳獨秀”、“中華壽岳”之稱。

  南岳衡山之所以能夠在全國眾多名山中脫穎而出,首先應歸功于它那旖旎多姿的風光、豐富多樣的物種和瑰麗無比的氣象。

  南岳號稱“五岳獨秀”,以“秀”為主要景觀特色。這里群巒疊翠,萬木爭榮,云霧繚繞,溪泉叮咚,真是“五里不同景,十里兩重天”呀!衡山的風景美不勝收、數不勝數,其中最著名的當屬“衡山四絕”:藏經殿之秀,方廣寺之深,祝融峰之高和水簾洞之奇。

  衡山屬中亞熱帶季風性濕潤氣候,無霜期長,冰凍期短,具有夏涼冬寒、雨量充沛、霧多風大、氣溫垂直變化明顯等特點。良好的自然條件造就了衡山無山不樹、無處不綠的特色景觀。南岳衡山共擁有600多科、1700多種樹木,風景林面積達2萬公頃,原始次生林面積達3 800公頃,森林覆蓋率高達80%以上,與之相伴的還有珍稀的野生動物錦雞、竹雞、大頭平胸龜、穿山甲等,可以稱得上是一座天然的生物資源寶庫。

  衡山自湘南盆地中拔地而起,突兀聳立,與周邊地區形成了鮮明的反差,也促成了許多美妙奇特的氣候景觀。衡山風景有“四海”之稱,即花海、林海、云海和雪海。春觀花、夏看云、秋望日、冬賞雪是觀賞衡山四季風光特色所在。在這其中,衡山的云尤其值得一提。“衡山云、黃山松”,自古就為人們所津津樂道。衡山的云一奇在四時變幻,春云同被,夏云如羽,秋云像瀑,冬云似墨;二奇在云嘯,有時雨后,衡山的云聚集起來,拔地而起,在半空中擴展成蘑菇狀,十分罕見;三奇在響云,清晨或傍晚山風吹過松林,挾著層層云塊向游人撲來,其中隱隱帶有松濤之聲,令人膽戰心驚,但一到身邊便化作無數輕紗,飄然散去,使人頓覺心中郁悶一掃而光,難怪古人曾長嘆“云海蕩吾心胸”呀!

  衡山之秀,外秀于林,內秀于文。南岳是中華文化的寶庫,以“文明奧區”享譽天下。歷朝歷代的帝王天子、達官貴人來此祭拜的歷史記載屢見不鮮,而文人騷客、鴻儒巨學的來訪更是不計其數。他們立碑建祠、訪古探幽、吟詩作賦,給衡山留下了寶貴的物質和精神財富,也使衡山成為湖湘文化名山。

  常言道:“天下名山僧占多。”衡山不僅是風景名山,也是宗教圣山。但衡山與其他宗教名山相比,其獨特之處是山上佛道并存,互彰互顯,同尊共榮。

  南岳古鎮

  經過南岳衡山牌坊,向前一拐,便踏入了南岳古鎮。古鎮的具體形成年代已不可考,但至少在唐代時,這里就已經形成了非常興旺的香市。大家請看腳下這條青石路面,歷經千年歲月,已經被磨得光可鑒人,鞋跟踩在上面發出清脆的響聲,宛若禪鐘木魚,敲擊著每一位香客的魂魄!

  南岳古鎮的街道都是用麻石板鋪成的,兩側是高矮一致的兩層挑樓,清一色朱瓦白墻、高高挑起的飛檐和雕龍畫鳳的屋脊,全部保持著舊時的風貌,處處體現出南岳古鎮的古樸之美。在這里的攤鋪里買一炷香,在茶樓上品一盞茶,都會感覺受益匪淺。古鎮的街道還有一奇,那就是兩側房屋下都有一條長廊,連成一線。這樣即使是在下雨天,不用打傘就可以悠然地漫步長街。

  古鎮雖小,但飯館、客棧、香肆、商店、佛堂,甚至是墨香猶存的書屋應有盡有。尤其是這里的飯館,供應的都是本地特色菜肴,像鮮嫩美味的野生蘑菇、口感獨特的衡山豆腐和營養豐富的山中竹筍,無不令人垂涎三尺。到了衡山不嘗嘗當地的風味菜肴,就像去了西安不吃羊肉泡饃、去了天津不吃狗不理包子、去了重慶不吃麻辣火鍋一樣,總是有些美中不足!

  走過了寫滿滄桑的青石板路,走過了印滿歷史的古棧民居,走過了蕩滌心靈的佛堂香肆,大家的心中是否也點亮了一盞明燈呢?大家是否對南岳又產生了一種異樣的情愫呢?大家是否對人生又多了一份思考呢?這就是古鎮真正的美之所在!

  南岳大廟

  穿過北街,前面豁然開朗,一座巍峨宏大的古建筑群展現在我們面前,這就是我國南方最大的宮殿式古建筑群——南岳大廟。

  南岳大廟是一組集民間祠廟、佛教寺院、道教宮觀和皇宮殿宇于一體的古建筑群,也是我國南方及五岳之中規模最大的廟宇。大廟現存建筑共有九進、四院、八寺和八觀,前后縱深375米,左右橫寬前半段139米,后半段174米,總計占地98500平方米。它的中軸線上為儒家建筑風格,東邊為八個道觀,西邊為八個佛寺,像這樣儒、道、佛三教共存一廟,在全國乃至全世界都是絕無僅有的。

  忠烈祠

  南岳忠烈祠坐落在香爐峰下,是我國建筑時間最早、規模最大的抗日戰爭紀念地之一,也是國民政府在大陸唯一一處保留下來的紀念抗戰烈士的大型陵園。忠烈祠籌建于1938年,1943年落成。陵園仿南京中山陵樣式建造,坐南朝北,依山而筑,左右對稱,層次分明。它沿中軸線共分為牌坊、紀念碑、紀念堂、致敬碑和享堂五部分。在這里,長眠著國民黨第九戰區和第六戰區的部分抗日陣亡戰士,是國家重點文物保護單位。

  朋友們,眼前的這座三拱橋單檐牌坊就是忠烈祠的正門。它是由花崗巖石砌成的,正上方的漢白玉石匾上鑲嵌著原國民黨湖南省政府主席兼第九戰區司令長官薛岳題寫的“南岳忠烈祠”五個鎦金大字。

  步入牌坊,便來到一個平坦而又開闊的廣場上。有的朋友也許會覺得奇怪:中國如此之大,為什么要選擇在南岳衡山修建忠烈祠呢?要說明這個問題,就不得不談一談當時的時代背景了。抗日戰爭爆發后,華北、華東和華南大部分地區相繼淪陷,國民黨政府遷都重慶,衡山成了抗日前線大本營之一。1938年11月,蔣介石在衡山主持召開了高級軍事會議,中共代表周恩來、葉劍英等也參加了這次會議。在會上,蔣介石聽取了各戰區指揮官的匯報后,鑒于“陣亡將士,多暴尸戰場”,指示要盡快將烈士遺體設法掩埋。經過討論,會議決定由中央下撥巨款,第九戰區、第六戰區和湖南省政府出資并接受社會各界捐款,在南岳名山修建忠烈祠和烈士公墓,安葬陣亡將士的遺骸,以告慰烈士在天英靈。這便是修建忠烈祠的由來。

  來到廣場的中心,大家肯定會被這個造型奇特的雕塑所吸引,這便是“七·七紀念塔”。它是由五顆倒立的石制炮彈組成,炮彈四大一小,代表著我國的五大民族——漢、滿、蒙、回、藏。雕塑的正面和左右兩側,都嵌有漢白玉砌的“七七”兩個字,象征著從1937年7月7日盧溝橋事變爆發后,中國人民同仇敵愾,共御外侮.掀起的全民抗日的民族怒潮。這些炮彈倒立在地上、直指藍天、直指太陽,寓意著“抗日”。

  參觀了“七·七紀念塔”,便來到了忠烈祠的第三進建筑——紀念堂。匾額是前民革中央副主席屈武題寫的。紀念堂的正中豎著一塊高達6米的漢白玉石碑,上面刻有薛岳將軍撰寫的《南岳忠烈祠紀念堂碑記》,記述了建祠的歷史背景和經過。堂的兩側現在開辟為展覽室,陳列著關于南岳與抗戰的一些圖片文字資料。

  從紀念堂的后門走出,大家可以看到兩排石階依山勢而上。石階共有276級,代表著抗戰時期犧牲的276位將官。兩排石階的中間為精心設計的綠地,其中用大理石片鑲嵌著“民族忠烈千古”和“民族、民權、民生”的大字。

  拾級而上,就來到了忠烈祠最后也是最主要的建筑——享堂。在享堂正門上方懸掛著鎦金巨匾“忠烈祠”,是蔣介石的手跡。

  從享堂出來,大家請看兩側的山坡,這是抗日英烈的公墓區。整個墓區占地約13公頃,共有37軍60師、70軍19師等集體墓葬7座,胡鶴云、鄭作民等將軍個人墓葬10座。這些公墓,都掩映在蒼松翠柏之間,有的華表相望,墓闕凌空;有的碑碣成行,塔尖插云。其氣象肅穆,隱現英烈忠魂,令人景仰,讓人欽佩!

  祝融峰

  祝融峰是衡山七十二峰的最高峰,海拔1290米。由于它獨立于地勢相對低洼的湘南盆地之中,更顯得峻極天穹,因此登高一望,湘南風景盡收眼底。祝融峰頂建有祝融殿。殿宇完全修建在一座絕頂巨石之上,分為兩進,在殿頂上蓋有二尺長、一尺寬,重達30多斤的加錫鐵瓦。在這些鐵瓦中,有數十塊由宋朝報國寺鑄造,至今歷經千年而不銹,光潔如新。有的朋友可能覺得奇怪,為什么這里要用鐵瓦呢?其實這里也體現了建筑師的匠心獨具。大家看一下祝融峰頂的四周,樹木稀少而且低矮,這是由于這里終年不斷的四五級大風造成的。要保持殿頂不被颶風掀起,非鐵瓦不足以勝任。

  從祝融殿右側小石門走出,外面還有一個石臺,上刻“乾坤勝覽”和“唯我最高”。這是望月臺,也是南岳衡山真正的最高點。站在這里憑欄望月,會覺得云低月近,如登天門一般,令登臨者心曠神怡,魂游物外!
 

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