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“天安門”中英雙語導游詞,天安門英語導游詞

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  題一:清明時期的天安門及天安門廣場  

  各位游客大家好!
  
  現在我們所在的位置時天安門城樓上,好,就讓我站在這里向大家介紹一下清明時期的天安門及天安門廣場吧。
  
  天安門在明朝時稱“承天門”,取意“承天啟運,受命于天”之意,天安門建成于明永樂十八年,明朝末年毀于戰火,到清朝重建后,改名“天安門”,取“受命于天,安邦治國”之意。
  
  天安門占地4800平方米,由城臺和城樓組成,通高33.7米,在1970年重修的時候增高了1米,現在為34.7米,城臺下全部是漢白玉須彌座,這是我國最高等級的基座。城樓為重檐歇山頂,頂上覆蓋黃色琉璃瓦,大典的紅漆玉柱有60根,地面鋪的金磚由蘇州、寧夏等地運來,處處顯示著皇家的威嚴。
  
  天安門是明清兩朝皇城的正門,天安門城樓的左云非常重要,明清時期凡遇皇帝登基,冊立皇后,冊立太子,將士出征等,都要在天安門城樓上舉行隆重的頒詔禮。明代頒詔時,用一根龍頭桿系彩繩順墻而下。清代頒詔時,在天安門正中設頒詔臺,宣詔后,眾官員行三跪九叩禮,宣召官將詔書放在一個鍍金雕云狀的“朵云”盤內,然后來到城樓正中,將詔書用黃絲線懸系在一個木雕金鳳的口中,金鳳口銜詔書徐徐而下,好想天子帝王之命由金鳳乘云朵自天空二降落到人間。禮部官員仍用朵云盤樓乘詔書,仿佛龍亭后送到禮部,由禮部將詔書印好,頒行天下。這一整個過程被稱為“金鳳頒詔”。
  
  請大家往城樓下看,在天安門城樓錢對著5個門洞,有5座漢白玉石橋,叫做金水橋。正中最寬的一座名為御路橋,是供皇帝出入專用的;其東西兩側的量座橋為皇族橋,是專供皇親國戚們通行的橋;再兩側的橋為品級橋,只有三品以上的大臣才可以通過。那講到這里可能有朋友要問了,死拼一下的官員和士兵、雜役從哪里通行呢?在太廟和社稷壇南大門前分別各有一座橋,叫公生橋,這兩座橋就是專供四品一下官員、兵弁和雜役行走的通道。
  
  再來看,天安門前有兩對雕刻于明永樂年間的漢白玉石獅,他們分別位于外金水河南北兩岸,東側的都是雄獅腳踏繡球,寓意一同寰宇;西側的都是雌獅腳踩幼獅,寓意子孫綿延。兩對石獅的頭部都外向內側,表示保衛御路。
  
  請大家看這個方向,有一對象石柱一樣的陳設物,大家知道他們叫什么名字嗎?對了,叫華表。華表在中國有這悠久的歷史。相傳,在原始社會的堯舜禹時代就已有此物,但是叫“誹謗木”,這誹謗木各位可別誤會,這不是無限別人的意思,而是為征求民眾的意見而設于路邊的木樁,讓百姓對官吏發辮評論,提出看法,以示居住虛心納諫。此外,華表還曾被作為路標。隨著時代的發展,這類表木舉薦失去了它原來的意義和作用,演變成了一種純粹的裝飾物,成了宮殿建筑藝術的一個組成部分。天安門城樓前的這對立于明成化元年(1465)的漢白玉華表,每座華表高約10米,重達20噸。華表由三部分組成底部是圍繞有護欄的八角形臺座;中間柱身上雕有盤龍和朵云,柱頭橫插云板;頂部呈露盤上有一尊獸,俗稱“望天犼”。據說這小動物非常靈異,能提醒帝王們勤政。大家看,這兩只面朝南德犼是有名字的,叫“望君歸”,意思是提醒皇帝不要在外面留戀青山秀水,不思國事,盼望國軍早日歸政,其實,在天安門城樓的北側,也有一對這樣的華表,而城樓北側的犼是面朝北,為什么呢?因為這里的犼叫“望君出”,意思是提醒皇帝,不要沉迷于花天酒地,醉生夢死的生活,要走出宮去,去體察民情,希望國君走出去看一看。
  
  我們眼前的天安門廣場,在明清時期可沒有現在這么大,那時的廣場石封閉的“T”字型廣場,“T”字的一橫就是我們今天的長安街,舊稱“天街”,是頒詔是官員們跪聽的地方。在天街的東邊有長安左門,俗稱“龍門”西邊有長安右門,俗稱“虎門”。“T”子的那一豎就是從現在的國旗桿錢到毛主席紀念堂的這一條長形區域,稱作“御路”。在御路的東西兩側,有千步廊,是南北方向通脊聯檐廊房,各110間,天街兩側各有34間,總共有288間。千步廊是在民國初年被拆除的。
  
  在廣場東西兩側T形廣場外事按文東武西的格局分布著當時的政府機關。東側明代設有吏部、戶部、禮部、兵部、工部、宗人府、鴻臚寺、欽天監、太醫院等,清代增設了翰林院;西側大體是武職和司法機關所在地。明代設有五軍都督府、錦衣衛、太常寺等,清代改設鑾儀衛、大理寺、刑部、通政司、都察院等。
  
  大家看,在現在毛主席紀念堂的位置,是明代的“大明門”,清代城“大清門”的地方。民國元年改為中華門。1958年修建天安門廣場時拆除,1976年在此建造了毛主席紀念堂。
  
  在大明門的南側,是正陽門城樓和正陽門箭樓,“正陽”二字的取“圣主當陽,日至中天,玩過瞻仰”的意思。在明清時期,正陽門還包裹甕城、甕城內的關帝廟和觀音廟、甕城前的正陽橋與五牌樓,他們共同構成北京內城城南一組壯觀的建筑群。其中城樓高40.36米,箭樓設有箭窗94個,是內城最高大雄偉的城樓和箭樓。1900年八國聯軍入侵北京的時候被炮火擊毀,此后分別在1901年和1960年重修正陽門城樓和正陽門箭樓。
  
  在正陽門和大明門之間,有一個小廣場,被稱作棋盤街。棋盤街南連正陽門,北接大明門,東、西分別通往東江米巷(東郊民巷)和江西米巷(西交民巷)。因為在明朝和清朝的時候,平民百姓是不準從皇城中間穿行的,所以棋盤街就成了當時北京東、西城老百姓來往的交通要道。
  
  以上就是我給大家介紹的昔日的天安門和天安門廣場,希望我的講解能使大家對天安門和天安門廣場的過去有一點點的了解。謝謝。  

  題二:今日天安門廣場  

  各位朋友大家好!
  
  現在呢,我們來到了天安門廣場,我先為大家做一個簡單的介紹:天安門廣場時目前世界上最大的城市中心廣場,他位于北京市區的中心。天安門廣場呈長方形,南北長880米,東西寬500米,總面積44旺平方米。如果人們肩并肩地站在廣場上,整個廣場可容納100萬人。
  
  在天安門廣場的四周,有很多著名的建筑,現在我為大家以順時針方向做一個簡單介紹,就讓我們從廣場西側的人民大會堂開始吧!人民大會堂位于天安門廣場西側,整座建筑平面呈“山”字形,中央最高處46.5米,是現在廣場中的最高建筑。整個大會堂由三部分組成:南部為全國人大常委會辦公樓,其中包括以我國34個省、直轄市、自治區、特別行政區命名的會議廳。中部為萬人大會堂。北端是國宴大廳,可供5000分的坐其他席宴會或1萬人的酒會,是我國最大的宴會廳。整座建筑自設計到完工只用了10個月,是我國建筑史上的奇跡。
  
  在廣場的北端是大家都很熟悉的天安門城樓,它是新中國的象征,就是在天安門城樓上,1949年10月1日毛主席向全世界莊嚴宣告,“中華人名共和國成立了!中國人民從此站起來了!”
  
  廣場的東側矗立著的是國家博物館,總建筑面積6.9萬平方米,由中國歷史博物館和中國革命博物館兩部分組成。中國國家博物館是為慶祝中華人民共和國建國10周年而建造的背景50年代十大建筑之一,1959奶奶8月竣工。2003年2月28日,兩館合并,掛牌成立國家博物館,館名由江澤明同志提寫。中國歷史博物館位于南半部,主要陳列是“中國通史”,時間從170旺年前的元謀人開始,直到清王朝滅亡。中國革命博物館位于國家博物館北半部,收藏和展覽的是1840年鴉片戰爭以來的近代和現代文物。展品分中國革命歷史和中國共產黨史兩大部分。
  
  好,我們再往廣場的南端看,在人民英雄紀念碑的南面是毛主席紀念堂,原來在哪里曾有一座門,明代叫大明門,清代叫大清門,民國時又改為中華門,解放后拆除。1976年毛主席逝世后在其基址上建起了莊嚴肅穆的毛主席紀念堂。紀念堂建成于1977年,用時僅6個月,于1977年9月9日毛主席逝世周年時正式對外開放。毛主席紀念堂總建筑面積2.8萬平方米,全樓共兩層,一樓分為三個部分:北大廳是舉行紀念活動的場所,大廳中央為漢白玉雕刻的3米多高的毛主席坐像,坐像背后的墻上懸掛一幅描繪祖國山河的巨型絨繡。紀念堂的核心部分是瞻仰堂,正中安防著黑色花崗巖棺床,棺床上的水晶棺中安放著毛主席遺體,遺體上覆蓋中國共產黨黨旗,供人們憑吊、瞻仰、表達深深地敬意。南大廳別面的漢白玉墻壁上,鐫刻著毛澤東手書體的詩詞《滿江紅和郭沫若同志》。紀念堂耳聾為毛澤東、劉少奇、周恩來、朱德、鄧小平等老一輩無產階級革命家的紀念室。
  
  廣場的正中,巍巍聳立著中國第一碑--人民英雄紀念碑。他是為紀念自1840年至解放戰爭期間,在反對國內外名族解放和人民自由幸福的歷次斗爭中犧牲了的人民英雄而建立的,也是中國自古以來規模最大的紀念碑。紀念碑通高約38米,分為三個部分:碑頂、碑身、碑座。碑頂是中國傳統的建筑形式盝頂。碑身由413塊花崗巖壘砌成,分為正面和背面。正面是朝北的一面,上面刻有“人民英雄永垂不朽”八個字,為毛澤東題寫;背面是抄南德一面,碑文是由毛澤東撰寫,周恩來手書,內容是:“三年以來在人民解放戰爭和人民革命中犧牲的人民英雄永垂不朽!由此上溯到一千八百四十年從那時起為了反對內外敵人爭取民族獨立和人民自由幸福的歷次斗爭中犧牲的人民英雄們永垂不朽!”碑文以紫銅為胎,用黃金130兩鑲嵌在花崗巖碑芯上,碑芯14.7米高,重達60多噸。
  
  碑座由兩層月臺和兩層須彌座構成,下層須彌座四周鑲嵌著10幅漢白玉浮雕,從紀念碑的東側開始,內容按歷史順序依次為:“虎門銷煙”、“金田起義”、“武昌起義”、“五四運動”、“五卅運動”、“南昌起義”、“抗日戰爭”、“勝利渡江”。在“勝利渡江”的兩側有兩塊裝飾性浮雕,內容為“支援前線”和“歡迎人民解放軍”。全部浮雕共有180個人物,概括了我國100多年的歷史。上層小須彌座四周雕刻有由牡丹、荷花、菊花、百合花組成的8個花圈。
  
  天安門廣場時中國近代革命的見證人,反帝反封建的五四運動、“三一八慘案”、“一二九運動”都發生在這里。天安門廣場也是新中國誕生的見證人,更是今天人民幸福生活的見證人。現在,它已被全國人民評為“中國第一景”,每天都有來自海內外的朋友們到此參觀游覽。
  
  各位朋友,我們現在來到國旗桿前,大家應該知道,天安門廣場每天都有升降旗儀式,自從我國于1991年頒布了《國旗法》后,儀式有了新的規定,分為平日和節日兩種。逢國家重要慶典或每月1日舉行節日升(降)旗儀式。屆時升旗現場都有軍樂隊員現場演奏國歌,國旗護衛隊和軍樂隊共有官兵96人,象征捍衛祖國960萬平方公里的土地。整個升旗的過程持續2分零7秒,奏3遍國歌。平日升降旗儀式只有36名國旗護衛隊官員執行儀仗任務,儀式進行時播放國歌錄音。那可能有人會問了,每天的升降旗時間是怎么解決的呢?其實,國旗升降時間是依據每天日出和日落時間來確定的。每天早晨,當太陽的上部邊緣與天安門廣場的地平線相切時,就是升旗的時間;到了傍晚,當太陽的上部邊緣與天安門廣場的地平線相切時,就是降旗的時間。
  
  這里是在天安門前留影的最佳地點,請各位拍下這難忘的一刻,好,朋友們,天安門及廣場,我就講到這里,請各位自由參觀,30分鐘后我們在紀念碑北側集合,謝謝。
  
  英文范例
  
  題一:Tian'anmen Rostrum and Square during the Ming and Qing Dynasties
  
  (明清時期天安門和天安門廣場)
  

  Ladies and gentlemen:
  
  We will visit Tian'anmen Rostrum and square. First, please follow me to see the Tian'anmen Rostrum.
  
  Tian'anmen or the Gate of Heavenly Peace is located in the center of Beijing. It was first built in 1417 and was originally called the Gate of Heavenly Succession, which served as the main entrance to the main entrance to the former Imperial City. At the end of the Ming dynasty in 1644, it was seriously damaged in a war. When it was rebuilt in 1651 in the Qing dynasty, the name was changed to Tian'anmen.
  
  Tian'anmen Rostrum is 34. 7meters high with glistering yellow glazed tiles on the roof. Chairman Mao's portrait is hung above the central entrance; there are two slogans on each side. (One is:“Long live the Peopele's Republic of China.”The other one is:“Long Live the Great Unify of the People of Word.”
  
  It has five passages, during the Ming and Qing dynasties; the passage in the middle was especially reserved of the emperor himself. The emperor went through the central passage on the way to the altars and temples for ritual and some other religious activities.
  
  During the Ming and Qing dynasties, Tian'anmen Rostrum was the place where the important state ceremonies took place, the most famous “Imperial Edict Issused by Golden Phoenix” was held on the tower.
  
  In front of the Tian'anmen Rostrum is Outer Golden River. Spanning over the Golden River are seven arched stone bridges, knows the Golden Water Bridges. (The middle one was for the emperor only so it was called Imperial Bridge. The two bridges on each side were used by royal family members; they were called Royal's Bridges. The two bridges farther out were Ranking Bridges for the civil and military officials above the third rank. The remaining two bridges in front of the Zhongshan Park to the west and the Working People's Cultural Bridges.)
  
  The two pairs of stone lions by the Gate of Tian'anmen served as guardians in the old days. A pair of marble columns standing in front of Tian'anmen Rostrum is made of white marble, sculptured with dragon design. Behind the rostrum stands another pair of marble columns. In Chinese they are called “Huabiao”。 On the top of the Huabiao, a stone mythical animal squatting on the top is called “Hou”。 The pair of animals facing south were given the name “Wangjungui”, in English:“Expecting the emperor's coming back”。(which means whenever the emperor stayed too long outside , it would warn the emperor should not to stay away too long outside. Hurry back and take care of the state affairs, we were looking forward to your return.) Another pair of stone animals on Huabiao facing to the Forbidden City was given the name “Wangjunchu”, in English “Expecting the emperor's going out”。 (Which means the emperor not to spend the luxury life in the imperial palace, he should come out and get to know the sufferings of the common people.)
  
  Tian'anmen Square is situated south of Tian'anmen Rostrum, 880 meters long from north to south and 500 meters wide from east to west, with a total area of 44 hectares. Tiananmen Square is the largest city center square in the world. The square has witnessed many historical events, such as :“The December 9th Student'Movement” in 1935 and the ceremony of the founding of the People's Republic of China on October 1st in 1949.
  
  During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Tian'anmen Square used to be a “T” shaped square. It was surrounded by a red wall. At that time, the offices, located on the west, were for the military officers and the offices for the civil officials were on the east. In the early days of the Ming Dynasty, a gate was built right on the present side of the Chairman Mao's Mausoleum and it was called “the Gate of Great Ming”,served as the south gate of the imperial city. It was changed into “the Gate of Great Qing” in the Qing Dynasty. And it was again renamed as “the Gate of China” in 1912. During the Ming and Qing dynasties, there were two more gates built on Chang'an Avenue. The one on the west was called “the Right Gate of Chang'an Avenue” which was for the criminals, also called “Tiger Gate”。 The gate on the east was called “the Left Gate of Chang'an Avenue” for those scholars who passed the Palace Examination, it was also called “Dragon Gate”。 Along the central axis in the center of the square was the Imperial Road. The Thousand-step corridor on both sides of the road and some parts at the Chang'an Avenue, respectively towards Tiger Gate and Dragon Gate, altogether 288 rooms.
  
  Zheng Yang Gate is located  at the south part of the square which also knows as the “Front Gate ”。 It was one of the nine city gates in the old city of Beijing and was first built in 1420 in the early Ming Dynasty. It was renovated and rebuilt several times during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. The tower in front of the gate is the Arrow Tower(Jianlou)。 Originally, the gate and the tower were connected by two walls, on both sides which look like a jar shape, so it was also called Jar City.
  
  The space between the Front City Gate and the Gate of Great Ming was a small square with the streets designed in a “cross” pattern, so the square was nicknamed “Chess-board Street”。 There used to be some temples built for people to worship. During the Ming and Qing Dynasty the common people were not allowed to walk through the Imperial City. So the “Chess-board” street became an important line of communication and thoroughfare for the residents pass from east to west.
  
  This is the introduction of Tian'anmen Rostrum and Tian'anmen Square during the past time. I hope it can help you to have a better understanding of this place. Thank you.  
  題二:Tian'anmen Rostrum and Square today
  
  (今日天安門廣場)
  
  Tian'anmen Square is situated of Tian'anmen Rostrum , 880 meters long from north to south and 500 meters wide from east to west, with a total area of 44 hectares (109acres)。 It can hold half a million people, but once it accommodated city center square in the world. The square has witnessed many historical events, such as :“The May 4th movement in 1919”,“The March 18th Massacre” in 1926 and “The December 9th students' Movement” in 1935.
  
  Tian'anmen square was enlarged in the 1950s and some important buildings were also built on the square. Along the central axis from north to south, first we can see the National Flagpole. It is made of 4 seamless steel tubes, 32. 6meters high, and 7 tons in weight, which will not get rusty for 20 years. The national flag with five yellow stars flutters on the flagpole. Since May 1st in 1991, we have the flag-raising ceremony every day at sunrise in the morning and we also have the flag-lowering ceremony every day at sunset. On the 1st day of the month and other important dates for national ceremonies, we hold a special holiday ceremony. During the ceremony, there are 36 guards of honor with 60 guards of military band behind, making up 96 guards altogether, march along the north-south axis towards the flagpole. The number 96 signifies the territory of China, which has 9.6 million square kilometers in area. While for other events, an ordinary ceremony is held by a tape recording.
  
  The Monument to the People's Heroes stands in the center of the square. It was built in 1952 and was completed in 1958. In order to commemorate the people's heroes who laid down their lives in the course of the Chinese revolution and the Chinese liberation. It is 38 meters high with 17,000 pieces of granite and white marble on the base. The obelisk is 14.7 meters high that consists of 413 pieces of granite, and 2.9 meters wide, 1meter thick, 60tons in weight.
  
  On the front side of the monument, there is an engraved inscription in Chinese characters written by our late Chairman Maozedong : “Eternal Glory to the People's Heroes!” On the back of monument is an article also written by Chairman Mao. But the calligraphy was written by our late Premier Zhou enlai. Under the obelisk are the two-layered bases of the monument. The bottom layer is inlaid with ten pieces of white marble relieves.
  
  Chairman Mao's Mausoleum located south of the Monument to the People's Heroes, it was built in November 1976 and was completed in May 1977. It was officially opened to the public on September 9th, 1977, just one year after his death. It occupies a total floor space of 28,00square meters. There are three main halls inside the mausoleum.
  
  On the west of the square is the Great Hall of the People , it was built in 1958 and was completed in1958. It occupies a total floor space of over 170,000 square meters. The highest point of this building is 46.5 meters high in the center with a big national emblem hanging in the middle. The building consists of three parts: the 10,000-seat Grand Auditorium, the Banquet Hall with 5,000 Seating capacity and the Offices for the Standing Committee of the National people's Congress and thirty-four Reception Halls.
  
  On the east of the square is the National museum which formerly called the Museum of the Chinese History and the Museum of the Chinese Revolution. 300,000 pieces of Chinese history form 1.7million years ago to 1919. The Museum of the Chinese Revolution covers the period from 1919 to 1949. The present name was given in 2003.
  
  Today, Tian'anmen  Square attracts millions of people from all over the world every year. So the square is always full of tourists who are busy taking pictures. Today, Tian'anmen Square is a place for celebrations during important festive occasions and some important state celebrations.

 

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