當前位置: > 新聞動態 >




  I find it easiest to look forwards by looking back, to the "Great Labour Migration"1 of 1948-55, seenat the time as a matter of2 black guests coming to a white host. It's a quasi-imperial3 perception that4 has shifted since the 1970s, but the social problems and deficiencies it engendered dog5 us still.

  It's highly questionable whether Britain is an open society even now. Against6 the upward trend in the 1980s of ethnic minorities breaking into the professions and the media must be set objective evidence of a very racist society7. Since the Stephen Lawrence affair8 the government has at least been talking about the existence of racism, but it's always the case that racism diminishes in times of prosperity. When the economic going gets tough9, people want someone to take their feelings out on10.

  The social landscape11 seems to me at a surreal crossroads. Britain fosters images of itself as homogeneous12 ?to be white is no longer the central defining feature?but there remain various kinds of "Britishness". So I can envisage the future in two very different ways.

  The first is broadly the way Britain is at the moment: a mosaic of communities13 ?Bangladeshi, Afro-Caribbean, Chinese or Jewish holding fast to a strong social identity, but lumbered also with14 a whole raft of15 benefits and disadvantages, most of them defined in economic terms16. It's possible that will still be the pattern in 50 years time, but not very likely.

  Instead17, I expect the old duality of a "host community" and "immigrants" whose bad luck it is to be excluded and disadvantaged to have vanished18. Some ethnic communities may make a point of19 survival, but only those who are most proud of their cultural roots.

  The alternative20 is a pick-and-mix social landscape. At the moment ethnic minorities are moving in different directions at different rates, with personal and social engagement across ethnic boundaries increasing all the time. One crude indicator is the level of mixed-race marriage: one in five Bangladeshi and Pakistani men born in Britain now has a white wife, and one in five babies born in Britain has one Afro-Caribbean and one white parent.

  This implies a Britain in which people will21 construct multiple identities defined by all sorts of factors: class, ethnicity, gender, religion, profession, culture and economic position. It22 won't be clear-cut. Not all ethnic minorities, or members of an ethnic minority, will be moving in the same direction or identifying the same issues at the heart of their identities. It's about deciding who you are, but also about how other people define you.

  That's what will be at the heart of the next 50 years: enduring communities linked by blood through time versus23 flexible, constantly shifting identities. Identity won't be about where you have come from; it will be a set of values you can take anywhere that is compatible with24 full participation in whichever society you live in.










  1. Great Labour Migration:英國在二戰之后由于缺乏勞動力,從海外,特別是加勒比地區、孟加拉和巴基斯坦,招募了大量勞工,史稱"勞工大遷移"。

  2. a matter of:這里'一件……事'的意思不必譯出。

  3. quasi-imperial perception: '準帝國觀念'也就是"帶有帝國意識的看法"。

  4. It's ... that...:這里如按定語從句來譯,中文讀起來不自然。

  5. dog:動詞,意思是'尾隨,纏'。

  6. against:這里的意思是'在……的背景下',可以譯成"鑒于"。

  7. Against ... society:這是一個倒裝句,正常語序是Objective evidence ... must be set against the upward trend ...。作者顯然不認為英國存在嚴重的種族主義,因此這句話得譯成"鑒于...,必須拿出客觀證據才能說社會上有嚴重的種族歧視。"

  8. Stephen Lawrence affair: 1993年4月22日英國黑人青年斯蒂文·勞倫斯在倫敦街頭被一伙白人種族主義青年殺死。由于執法機關破案不力,提不出充分證據起訴犯罪嫌疑人。這件事在英國引起強烈反響。1997年7月31日,英國內務部宣布對"勞倫斯事件"進行公開調查。1999年2月公布的調查報告認為執法機關內部存在"機構性種族主義"。犯罪嫌疑人至今仍逍遙法外。

  9. When ... tough:英語有句俗話When the going gets tough, the tough get going.,這里套用了其前半句,意思是'經濟形勢變困難時',可以譯成"每逢經濟不景氣"。

  10. people ... on:相當于people want to take out their feelings on someone。take sth. out on sb.的意思是'拿某人撒氣'。

  11. landscape:與political、social等詞搭配時,意思是'形勢、局面、格局'。

  12. fosters ... homogeneous: foster images的意思是'促使樹立形象/給人印象',homogeneous的意思是'同質的,單一的',合在一起,意思是"讓人覺得它是個單一民族國家"。

  13. a mosaic of communities:馬賽克是用小色塊拼成的圖案,'社區拼成的馬賽克'就是"馬賽克式的多元社區"。

  14. be lumbered with:受……的拖累。

  15. a whole raft of:一大堆,大量。

  16. defined in ... terms:是從...角度考慮的。這里譯成"是經濟方面的"更簡單一些。

  17. instead:這是一個話語標記,承接前面的否定句,引出下面表示肯定的句子。漢語在某種程度上與之對應的是"倒是"、"相反"。

  18. I expect ... vanished:這個句子中間加了一個定語從句使得結構有些復雜,去掉定語從句后,句子的主干是I expect the old duality of a "host community" and "immigrants" to have vanished,定語從句whose bad luck it is to be excluded and disadvantaged限定的是immigrants。

  19. make a point of:后面接動名詞或表示動作的名詞時,意思是'刻意,力求,力爭'。

  20. the alternative:前面說了"可能性不大",另一個選擇就是"可能性較大"。

  21. This ... will:按定語從句譯,譯文會很別扭。這里可以按This implies that in Britain people will譯。

  22. it:從上下文來看,其所指應當是構建的結果。

  23. versus:這里按通例譯成"對"不容易把意思表達清楚,不妨用"一方面……一方面"表示對立的雙方。

  24. be compatible with: '與……相容'就是"不妨礙"。